Marine Protected Area Governance
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Marine Protected Area Governance (MPAG)

Book derived from this project

Latest news!

MPAG at Sink or Swim Conference

Slides of Invited keynote at the Marine Conservation - Sink or Swim conference

MPAG at Rome 10X20 Conference

The MPAG rationale and findings formed the basis of the governance stream of the recent international 10X20 Conference (7-9 March 2016, Rome) to support the achievement of a globally agreed target to conserve at least 10% of coastal and marine areas by 2020 (SDG 14, Target 5). This is part of the 10X20 initiative, organised by the Government of Italy, the United Nations Environment Programme and the Ocean Sanctuary Alliance. The first two days of the conference involved 25 international experts in discussions on good practice for measures to designate and promote the effectiveness of marine protected areas (MPAs), focusing on science, governance and finance. During the third day, diplomatic representatives from 33 countries from around the world joined the conference to agree a Call to Action and Scientists' Consensus Statement, which will help guide national governments, United Nations agencies and development donors over the next 15 years in MPA projects around the world. Slides of opening keynote on MPA governance - Information bulletin on this conference and the outputs

Paperback published and four new projects

Paperback version of the book Governing Marine Protected Areas: resilience through diversity now published, see Routledge web site for this book to purchase paperback for US$40 or £22 with 20% discount code DC361. Four new projects have also recently been initiated that will further develop and apply the MPAG analyses, see recent update on paperback version of book and these four projects.

The MPAG Project

This project and the related book - Governing Marine Protected Areas: resilience through diversity - addresses some important challenges related to the effective and equitable governance of marine protected areas (MPAs). These challenges are explored through a study of 20 MPA case studies from around the world. A novel governance analysis framework is employed to address some key questions: How can top-down and bottom-up approaches to MPA governance be combined? What does this mean, in reality, in different contexts? How can we develop and implement governance approaches that are both effective in achieving conservation objectives and equitable in fairly sharing associated costs and benefits?

This project and the book explore the many issues that these questions raise, as well as exploring options for addressing them. A key theme is that MPA governance needs to combine people, state and market approaches, rather than being based on one approach and its related ideals. Building on a critique of the governance analysis framework developed for common-pool resources, the book puts forward a more holistic and less prescriptive framework for deconstructing and analyzing the governance of MPAs. This inter-disciplinary analysis is aimed at supporting the development of MPA governance approaches that build social-ecological resilience through both institutional and biological diversity. It will also make a significant contribution to wider debates on natural resource governance, as it poses some critical questions for contemporary approaches to related research and offers an alternative theoretical and empirical approach.

This project is a collaboration amongst a group of governance experts, led by Dr Peter JS Jones (Dept of Geography, University College London), in collaboration with Dr Elizabeth De Santo, Dr Wanfei Qiu, and MPA planners and managers, in association with and funding from UNEP. It was established to analyse MPA case studies and develop guidance on governing MPAs in seas under national jurisdiction. An initial samle of 20 MPA case studies from around the world have been brought together in the preliminary phase and subjected to detailed analyses employing a new governance analysis framework, ‘deconstructing’ the complexities of MPA governance (MPAG) employing 36 incentives from five categories. The book describes the findings of this work. It is intended to provide a foundation for further discussions and learning, employing the governance analysis framework in different contexts, and to provide a preliminary resource for MPA managers to consider how different incentives might be combined to support the governance of their MPA. The MPA governance analysis framework includes descriptions of the five MPA governance approach categories and the 36 incentives that can be applied in these approaches.

The book Governing Marine Protected Areas: resilience through diversity (published 25 February 2014) describes this framework, its theoretical background and the details of its application to 20 MPA case studies around the world in much more detail. The book is available from Earthscan/Routledge (see seven reviews at this site), 20% discount code DC361. See leaft and blog for more details on this book.

Building on the original 20 case studies, the MPA governance analysis framework has since been applied to 11 case study MPAs in Jamaica (4 case studies), Belize (3), Madagascar (1), Indonesia (1), England (1) and Massachusetts (1), and is in the process of being applied to 11 case study MPAs in the Mediterranean (5), Vietnam (3), the Seychelles (1) and Western Australia (2). These findings will be published in the near future. If you are interested in undertaking further case studies employing the MPA governance analysis framework (including descriptions of 36 incentives) as part of your academic (including masters, doctoral and post-doctoral) or vocational (MPA managers, etc) studies, please do contact Peter Jones.

Recent developments

  • Slides of presentation on MPA governance at 20 by 20 MPA Conference (Rome 7 March 2016). This presentation was the opening keynote of the Governance Stream of this conference, which Peter is coordinating. It argues that governance systems tend to be more resilient to the driving forces that can challenge the fulfillment of conservation objectives where a larger diversity of different incentives are used in combination. It discusses how this is analogous to ecological systems, which tend to be more resilient where a larger diversity of species is present.
  • Review published in International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law: "The book draws upon an interesting range of examples from around the globe and it could attract a wide readership from amongst those interested in the management of MPAs from the perspective of national law...interesting use of case studies and examples could provide inspiration for anyone interested in designing or reviewing a management framework for a MPA within national jurisdiction."
  • Slides of presentation at OECD workshop on Marine Spatial Planning (Lisbon 5 June 2015): MPAs and MSP: co-evolution or competition? This presentation looks at the evolutionary links between MPAs and MSP, and argues that integrated-use MSP is becoming a competitor to ecosystem-based MSP, including the marginalisation of MPAs. It considers the need for analyses of the effectiveness of MPAs in an EU context, employing the MPAG analysis framework.
  • Invited contribution, based on the MPAG project, to commissioned book: pp.623-626 of  ‘Chapter 20 - Marine Protected Area Management’ in Protected Area Governance and Management (February 2015). Legacy document from the World Parks Congress.
  • Comment in Nature based on book as part of 'to-do list for the world's parks' - Assess Governance Structures
  • Book reviewed by Nathan Bennett in Conservation Biology- 'Governing marine protected areas in an interconnected and changing world'. His review raises the question of whether Bennett fully read and understood the book, see the review and my response in the comments here (download and view with Adobe Acrobat Reader)
  • Comprehensive and positive review of book by Bob Earll: "This book does the rare thing of putting the social into the socio-ecology of protected areas and  provides valuable insights into natural resource management  in general... This is a very significant book providing clarity of structure, evidence and insight into the neglected area of social science and marine protected areas. This insight has a value way beyond MPAs, to marine conservation and environmental issues in general."
  • Interview in MPA News drawing on Governing MPAs book -  Achieving conservation objectives and social equity goals
  • Book briefly reviewed in Nature on 20 March (Vol 507, p.305): Barbara Kiser notes that MPAs cover little more than 2% of the world's oceans despite an internationally agreed target of 10% by 2020. As many scientists have found, thousands of those that do exist are also little more than 'paper parks'. She adds: "Entering these choppy waters is geographer Peter Jones, who shows, through some 20 case studies, how and how not to govern MPAs effectively. Jones compellingly concludes that a diversity of incentives, from economic to social, is as essential as the diversity of the ecosystems MPAs are designed to protect."
  • Linked In discussion group established on MPA governance questions arising from the case studies, and on related papers, issues, potential case studies, etc
  • Special Issue of the journal Marine Policy based on MPAG research findings published - Governing marine protected areas: towards social-ecological resilience through institutional diversity - includes introductory paper (journal version and open copy), synthesis paper (journal version and open copy) and 15 case study papers - See Outline and Full Contents List: English, Spanish and Portuguese version
  • Nature news feature 'Ocean Conservation: uncertain sanctuary' discusses some of the findings of this report. The editorial of this issue of Nature discusses this news feature: 'Troubled Waters'
  • MPA News feature on MPA Governance report
  • Technical report published - Governing Marine Protected Areas: getting the balance right - Volume 1 Main Report - Volume 2 Case Study Reports (March 2010)

Next MPAG phase: global meta-analysis

The pilot phase of the marine protected area governance (MPAG) project, funded by UNEP, provided for the development and testing of an analytical framework for deconstructing governance in any given MPA. Funds are now being sought to apply this MPA governance analytical framework to a larger number of MPA case studies around the world, the target being 200 case studies. We have also undertaken a further 17 case studies (in addition to the original 20 case studies) on an opportunistic basis with masters and doctoral students and enquiries from research students who are interested in applying the MPA governance analytical framework are most welcome.

These MPAG case studies will contribute to a qualitative meta-analysis which will assess the effectiveness of MPA governance institutions in achieving biodiversity and resource conservation objectives, whilst  addressing equity issues, with the aim of systematically analysing the different combinations of incentives that are effective in particular contexts, providing for the identification of 'good practice' in MPA governance, including the potential for the transferability of good practice to other MPAs. This will provide a vital resource for MPA managers as well as providing for comparisons of MPA effectiveness with the governance approach employed. We are also interested in case studies that wish to apply techniques such as soft systems methodology to analyse MPA case study findings. Please contact Dr Peter JS Jones if you have any suggestions for funding or further case studies, including as part of your academic (including masters, doctoral and post-doctoral) or vocational (MPA managers, etc) studies.

Page last modified on 27 apr 16 17:33